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domenica 2 giugno 2013

Letteratura inglese - Shakespeare's sonnets

Shakespeare’s sonnets can be divided into two groups: a longer group including sonnets from 1 to 126 addressed to[1] a young men, Shakespeare’s friend and patron[2], and the remaining group addressed to a dark[3] lady. The whole sequence consists of 154 sonnets. The young men to whom the first 126 sonnets are addressed may have been the Earl of Southampton. The first 17 sonnets urge[4] the young man to marry so that his graces[5] may live again in his children.
As far as[6] the group of sonnets addressed to the dark lady is concerned, it is important to note the difference with Petrarch’s sonnets.
In Petrarch’s sonnets the lady is all-excellent[7] and is constantly praised[8] by the poet.
Shakespeare’s mistress, by contrast, is not beautiful and is inconstant and cruel, but the poet cannot help[9] loving her. She is the woman who has forsaken[10] and has drawn his patron into her power in order to break the tie between them[11].
The main theme developed in the whole sequence is the assurance[12] of poetic immortality both for the poet and the subject of his poems. Scarcely a sonnet stands alone[13]. The same theme is elaborated again and again in different sonnets with ever fresh[14] metaphors and imagery[15]. The form of the sonnets is composed of three alternately rhymed[16] quatrains and a final couplet which sums up[17] or comments on the earlier part (the three quatrains) or gives an unexpected twist[18] to the whole sonnet.
The collection of sonnets was published in 1609, with a dedication to Mr W.H. It is not known who Mr W.H. actually was. It is thought he may have been the Earlier of Southampton, who was Shakespeare’s friend and patron.

[1] dedicati a
[2] mecenate
[3] bruna/di carnagione scura
[4] to urge someone to do something = spronare qualcuno a fare qualcosa
[5] bellezza/doti
[6] Per quanto riguarda
[7] perfetta sotto tutti i punti di vista
[8] to praise somebody = lodare qualcuno
[9] non può fare a meno
[10] to forsake someone = abbandonare qualcuno
[11] al fine di spezzare il legame tra loro
[12] sicurezza
[13] Quasi mai un sonetto è a sé
[14] sempre nuovi
[15] Imagery = images
[16] rhyming alternately
[17] to sum = riassumere
[18] to give a twist = dare una svolta

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